ESA GNC Conference Papers Repository

Data Fusion Strategies for Hazard Detection and Safe Site Selection for Planetary and Small Body Landings
Câmara, F.; Oliveira, J.; Hormigo, T.; Araújo, J.; Ribeiro, R.; Falcão, A.; Gomes, M.; Dubois- Matra, O.; Vijendran, S.
Presented at:
Porto 2014
Full paper:

This paper discusses the design and evaluation of data fusion strategies to perform tiered fusion of several heterogeneous sensors and a-priori data. The aim is to increase robustness and performance of hazard detection and avoidance systems, while enabling safe planetary and small body landings anytime, anywhere. The focus is on Mars and asteroid landing mission scenarios and three distinct data fusion algorithms are introduced and compared. The first algorithm consists of a Hybrid camera-LIDAR Hazard Detection and Avoidance System, the H2DAS, in which data fusion is performed at both sensor-level data (reconstruction of the point cloud obtained with a scanning LIDAR using IMU data and correcting image for motion compensation), feature-level data (concatenation of multiple digital elevation maps, obtained from consecutive LIDAR images, to achieve higher accuracy and resolution maps while enabling relative positioning) as well as decision-level data (fusing hazard maps from multiple sensors onto a single image space, with a single grid orientation and spacing). The second method presented is a Hybrid Reasoning Fusion, the HRF, in which innovative algorithms replace the decision-level functions of the previous method, by combining three different reasoning engines - a fuzzy reasoning engine, a probabilistic reasoning engine and an evidential reasoning engine - to produce safety maps. Finally, the third method presented is called Intelligent Planetary Site Selection, the IPSIS, an innovative multi-criteria, dynamic decision-level data fusion algorithm that takes into account historical information for the selection of landing sites and a piloting function with a non-exhaustive landing site search capability, i.e., capable of finding local optima by searching a reduced set of global maps. All the discussed data fusion strategies and algorithms have been integrated, verified and validated in a closed loop simulation environment. Monte Carlo simulation campaigns were performed for the algorithms performance assessment and benchmarking. The simulations results comprise the landing phases of Mars and Phobos landing mission scenarios.